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Cornish heath, Erica vagansPrimula patens
taxon links [up-->]Fouquieriaceae [up-->]Polemoniaceae Not MonophyleticNot Monophyletic[down<--]Asterids Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

example of a tree diagram

You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.

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Relationships after Anderberg et al. 2002.
Containing group: Asterids


Albach, D. C., P. S. Soltis, D. E. Soltis, and R. G. Olmstead. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of asterids based on sequences of four genes. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 88:163-212.

Anderberg, A. A. 1992. The circumscription of the Ericales, and their cladistic relationships to other families of "higher" dicotyledons. Systematic Botany 17:660–675.

Anderberg, A. A., C. Rydin, and M. Källersjö. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships in the order Ericales s.l.: analyses of molecular data from five genes from the plastid and mitochondrial genomes. American Journal of Botany 89:677-687.

Anderberg, A. A. and B. Ståhl. 1995. Phylogenetic interrelationships in the order Primulales, with special emphasis on the family circumscriptions. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:1699–1730.

Anderberg, A. A., B. Ståhl and M. Källersjö. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships in the Primulales inferred from rbcL sequence data. Plant Systematics and Evolution 211:93–102.

Anderberg, A. A., B. Ståhl and M. Källersjö. 2000. Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l. Taxon 49:183–187.

Backlund, A. and B. Bremer, B. 1997. Phylogeny of Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to Dipsacales. Plant Systematics and Evolution 207:225-254.

Berry P. E., V. Savolainen, K. J. Sytsma, J. C. Hall, and M. W. Chase. 2001. Lissocarpa is sister to Diospyros (Ebenaceae). Kew Bulletin 56: 725-725.

Bremer, B., K. Bremer, N. Heidari, P. Erixon, R. G. Olmstead, A. A. Anderberg, M. Källersjö, and E. Barkhordarian. 2002. Phylogenetics of asterids based on 3 coding and 3 non-coding chloroplast DNA markers and the utility of non-coding DNA at higher taxonomic levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 24:274-301.

Geuten, K., E. Smets, P. Schols, Y.-M. Yuan, S. Janssens, P. Küpfer, and N. Pyck. 2004. Conflicting phylogenies of balsaminoid families and the polytomy in Ericales: combining data in a Bayesian framework. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31(2):711-729.

Källersjö, M., G. Bergqvist, and A. A. Anderberg. 2000. Generic realignment in primuloid families of the Ericales s.l.: a phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology. American Journal of Botany 87:1325–1341.

Morton, C. M., M. W. Chase, K. A. Kron, and S. M. Swensen. 1997. A molecular evaluation of the monophyly of the order Ebenales based upon rbcL sequence data. Systematic Botany 21:567–586.

Olmstead, R. G., K.-J. Kim, R. K. Jansen, and S. J. Wagstaff. 2000. The phylogeny of the Asteridae sensu lato based on chloroplast ndhF gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 16:96-112.

Savolainen, V., M. F. Fay, D. C. Albach, A. Backlund, M. van der Bank, K. M. Cameron, S. A. Johnson, M. D. Lledó, J.-C. Pintaud, M. Powell, M. C. Sheahan, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, P. Weston, W. M. Whitten, K. J. Wurdack, and M. W. Chase. 2000. Phylogeny of the eudicots: a nearly complete familial analysis based on rbcl gene sequences. Kew Bulletin 55:257-309.

Soltis, D. E., P. S. Soltis, M. W. Chase, M. E. Mort, D. C. Albach, M. Zanis, V. Savolainen, W. H. Hahn, S. B. Hoot, M. F. Fay, M. Axtell, S. M. Swensen, L. M. Prince, W. J. Kress, K. C. Nixon, and J. S. Farris. 2000. Angiosperm phylogeny inferred from 18S rDNA, rbcL, and atpB sequences. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 133:381-461.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Cornish heath, Erica vagans
Scientific Name Erica vagans
Comments Cornish heath (Ericaceae)
Copyright © Kurt Stüber
Primula patens
Scientific Name Primula patens
Location Kiparisovo village near Vladivostok, Primorsky Territory
Comments grown in a garden
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 2000
Scientific Name Sarracenia alabamensis
Location Near Selma (Alabama, USA)
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Sarracenia alabamensis
Source Collection CalPhotos
Copyright © 2001
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Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2002. Ericales. Version 01 January 2002 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Ericales/20720/2002.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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This page is a Tree of Life Branch Page.

Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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