Under Construction

Amphitretidae

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taxon links [up-->]Amphitretinae [up-->]Vitreledonellinae [up-->]Bolitaeninae [down<--]Octopodoidea Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Octopodoidea

Introduction

The family Amphitretidae contains three subfamilies of mesopelagic octopods that are weakly muscled (gelatinous) and have uniserial suckers on the arms.

Brief diagnosis:

Octopodoidea with ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Arm suckers uniserial; arrangement sometimes irregular at arm tips.
  2. Eyes
    1. Shape variable but not hemispherical.
  3. Musculature
    1. Muscles reduced; octopod with gelatinous consistency.
  4. Habitat
    1. Mesopelagic

Comments

The following table compares the subfamilies.

  Bolitaeninae
Amphitretinae
Vitreledonellinae
eye shape
Slightly laterally compressed (width > width of lens ).
Tubular
Strongly laterally compressed (i.e. width = width of lens)
  
Radula 
Ctenodont

Ctenodont

Heterodont

Arm length
 Less than mantle length
 More than mantle length
 More than mantle length
Mantle opening
Broad, ventral
Small, lateral
Broad, ventral

 

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

The concept of the family Amphitretidae has recently been revised (Strugnell, et al., 2013) and now includes three former families (Bolitaenidae, Amphitretidae and Vitreledonelidae) that previously were not always all considered closely related. The presence of a ctenoglossan radula in the Bolitaeninae and Amphitretinae has long supported the close relationship of these two taxa (e.g. Naef, 1921-3) and the new DNA data convincingly shows a monophyletic relationship between the Bolitaenidae and Vitreledonellidae (Strugnell, et al., 2013; this study lacked specimens of Amphitretus).

References

Strugnell, J. M., M. D. Norman, M. Vecchione, M. Guzik and A. L. Allcock. 2013. The ink sac clouds octopod evolutionary history. Hydrobiologia (online, 28 May), 21 pp.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Japetella diaphana
Location off Hawaii
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
View Side
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 1995
Scientific Name Amphitretus pelagicus
Location Central North Pacific
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © 2001 Steven Haddock
Scientific Name Vitreledonella richardi
Location Hawaiian waters
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Sex Male
Life Cycle Stage Immature
View Side
Size 90 mm ML
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 1996
About This Page

Page: Tree of Life Amphitretidae. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Tree of Life Web Project. 2013. Amphitretidae. Version 07 July 2013 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Amphitretidae/149568/2013.07.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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