Bees, digger wasps
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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Alexander, B. 1990. A preliminary phylogenetic analysis of sphecoid wasps and bees. Sphecos 20: 7-16.
Alexander, B. 1992. An exploratory analysis of cladistic relationships within the superfamily Apoidea, with special reference to sphecid wasps. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 1: 25-61.
Brothers, D. J. 1999. Phylogeny and evolution of wasps, ants and bees (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Vespoidea and Apoidea). Zoologica Scripta 28 (1-2): 233-249.
Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic Amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.
Finnamore, A. T. 1993. Series Spheciformes. In: Goulet, H. & Huber, J. T. (Eds). Hymenoptera of the World: an Identification Guide to Families. pp. 280-306, Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa.
Krombein, K. V. 1979. Superfamily Sphecoidea. In: Krombein, K. V., Hurd, P. D. Jr., Smith, D. R. & Burks, B. D. (Eds.). Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico (Volume 2, pp. 1573-1740J). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C.
Lomholdt, O. 1982. On the origin of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Sphecidae). Entomologica Scandinavica 13: 185-190.
Melo, G. A. R. 1997. Phylogenetic Relationships and Classification of the Major Lineages of Apoidea (Hymenoptera), with Emphasis on the Crabronid Wasps. Unpublished doctoral Dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.
Menke, A. S. 1997. Family-group names in Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 6: 243-255.
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Tree of Life Web Project. 1995. Apoidea. Bees, digger wasps. Version 01 January 1995 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Apoidea/11190/1995.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/