Under Construction

Asperoteuthis acanthoderma (Lu, 1977)

Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
The holotype is deposited in the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Containing group: Asperoteuthis

Introduction

A. acanthoderma reaches a rather large size. The largest specimen known has a mantle length of 78 cm and long, slender tentacles. In one squid (45 cm ML) the tentacles were over 12 times longer than the mantle (i.e., about 5.5 m)(Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1993). The most distinctive feature of this species is the presence of very small, pointed cartilagenous tubercules over the surface of the head, mantle and arms.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral view of A. acanthoderma, mature male, 65 cm ML, Gulf of Mexico. Note the extremely thin,  long tentacles and the long arms. Photograph by Jesse Wicker.

Brief diagnosis

An Asperoteuthis ...

Characteristics

  1. Arms
    1. Large arm suckers with 3-4 broadly rounded teeth on distal half of inner ring.
    2. Arm II with enlarged suckers (3 times diameter of proximal-most sucker) in mid-arm; Arm III with enlarged suckers in more distal region of arm.
    3. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Oral view of arm suckers of A. acanthoderma: A - Sucker no. 11 counting from arm base, from arm III of the holotype, 190 mm ML. B - Arm sucker from (((WH354))). Scanning electron migrographs by R. Young.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Suckers with nine blunt teeth in contact at base over distal half of inner ring.
    2. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Tentacular club of A. acanthoderma. Top Left - Oral view of club sucker from (((WH354))). Scanning electron micrograph by R. Young. Top Right - Oral view of club. Illustration by J. R. Schroeder. Bottom - Oral view, male, Gulf of Mexico. Photograph by Jesse Wicker.

  3. Head
    1. Beaks: Descriptions can be found here: Lower beak; upper beak.

  4. Integument
    1. Covered (except for tentacles) with tiny, conical, cartilagenous tubercules.
    2. Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. A - Cross-section through the mantle of A. acanthoderma. Note the highly vacuolated mantle tissue, the two large, elongate "holes" in the integument which house chromatophores and the conical tubercule (arrow) on the surface of the skin. B - Scanning electron micrograph of mantle surface. Arrows indicate position of tubercules. Photographs from Lu, 1977, with permission.

  5. Funnel
    1. Funnel-locking apparatus with long, slender tragus and narrow antitragus that form an inverted Y-shaped groove.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Frontal (= ventral) view of the funnel component of the funnel/mantle locking apparatus of A. acanthoderma. Left - Drawing by J. R. Schroeder. Right - Base of the funnel with funnel locks, male, Gulf of Mexico. Photograph by Jesse Wicker.

  6. Fins
    1. Fin length 50-55% of ML.
    2. Fin width 35-40% of ML
    3. Secondary "fin" comparable in length to primary (= true) fin but more slender.

  7. Photophores
    1. Oval photophore on the ventral surface of each eye.
    2. Numerous photogenic pads on the tentacle stalk.
    3. Large club-tip photophore with short, broad, terminal papilla.
    4. Twelve pairs of small, embedded photophores on aboral surface of club in two series and of two sizes.
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
      Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

      Figure. Aboral views of the tentacular club of A. acanthoderma. Left - Aboral view of the terminal photophore on the tentacular club, male, Gulf of Mexico. Photograph by Jesse Wicker. Middle - Same view of the terminal photophore on the club. Drawing by J. R. Schroeder. Right - Aboral view of tentacle club showing the position of embedded photophores at club base and on either side of the club "stalk" , 180 mm ML. Drawing from Lu, 1977, with permission.

  8. Measurements
    1. Arms: Arms I ca. 75-85% of ML; Arms III ca.95-110 % of ML; Arms IV ca. 95-115% 0f ML.
    2. Tentacular club: Club length ca. 16% of ML; Protective membranes - Proximal set with x-xx trabeculae (xx-xx% of club length); distal set with xx trabeculae (xx-xx% of CL).
    3. Head: Head length 26% of ML.

Life History

The largest known specimen (78 cm ML) was an immature female. A mature male of 65 cm is known (see Introduction above). Paralarval stages are unknown.

Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window

Figure. Ventral views of A. acanthoderma, 78 cm ML, immature female. Drawing from Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1993, with permission.

Distribution

The type locality is the Celebes Sea. This species is also known from waters off Okinawa (Tsuchiya and Okutani, 1993) and Hawaii.

References

Lu, C. C. 1977. A new species of squid Chiroteuthis acanthoderma, from the Southwest Pacific (Cephalopoda, Chiroteuthidae). Steenstrupia, 4: 179-188.

Nesis, K. N. 1980. Taxonomic position of Chiroteuthis famelica Berry. Bull. Moscow Obslich. Ispyt. Prirody, Section Biology, 85: 59-66. [In Russian].

Tsuchiya, K. and T. Okutani (1993). Rare and interesting squids in Japan -X. Recent occurrences of big squids from Okinawa. Venus, 52: 299-311.

Young, R. E. (1991). Chiroteuthid and related paralarvae from Hawaiian waters. Bull. Mar. Sci., 49: 162-185.

Title Illustrations
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window
Scientific Name Asperoteuthis acanthoderma
Creator J. R. Schroeder
Copyright ©
About This Page


University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA


Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., USA

Page: Tree of Life Asperoteuthis acanthoderma (Lu, 1977). Authored by Richard E. Young and Clyde F. E. Roper. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Clyde F. E. Roper. 2010. Asperoteuthis acanthoderma (Lu, 1977). Version 17 March 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Asperoteuthis_acanthoderma/19466/2010.03.17 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

edit this page
close box

This page is a Tree of Life Leaf Page.

Each ToL leaf page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a leaf at the tip of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a leaf and a branch of the Tree of Life is that a leaf cannot generally be further subdivided into subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

close box

Asperoteuthis acanthoderma

Page Content

articles & notes

collections

people

Explore Other Groups

random page

  go to the Tree of Life home page
top