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Baronia brevicornis

Robert D. Reed, Vazrick Nazari, and Felix A. H. Sperling
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Baronia brevicornis
Containing group: Papilionidae


The swallowtail subfamily Baroniinae contains a single species: Baronia brevicornis. This species is believed to be the most "primitive" of the living swallowtails, a hypothesis which has been supported by morphological and molecular data (Miller 1987, Caterino et al. 2001). New molecular evidence, however, provides evidence that it may be a sister only to Parnassiinae (Nazari et al., 2007).

Baronia brevicornis is a threatened butterfly that has a very small home range in Mexico.

Other Names for Baronia brevicornis


Brown, K.S.Jr., C.F. Klitzke, C. Berlingeri, and P.E.R.D. Santos. 1995. Neotropical swallowtails: Chemistry of food plant relationships, population ecology, and biosystematics. In Swallowtail butterflies: Their ecology and evolutionary biology. Pages 405-445. Eds. Scriber-J-M; Tsubaki-Y; Lederhouse-R-C. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Gainesville, Florida, USA

Caterino, M.S., R.D. Reed, M.M. Kuo, and F.A.H. Sperling. 2001. A partitioned likelihood analysis of swallowtail butterfly phylogeny (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Syst. Biol. 50(1):106-127.

De la Maza, E.J., L.J. White, and L.A. White. 1987. Observation on the female polymorphism of Baronia brevicornis Salv. (Papilionidae Baroniinae) with a description of new subspecies from the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Lepidopterologia A C: 11: 3-13.

Eisner, T., T.E. Pliske, M. Ikeda, D.F. Owen, L. Vazquez, H. Perez, J.G. Franclem, and J. Meinwald. 1970. Defense mechanisms of Arthopods. 27. Osmeterial secretions of papilionid caterpillars (Baronia, Papilio, Eurytides). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 63: 914-?.

Häuser, C.L. 1992. A new abdominal scent organ in females of Baronia brevicornis (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zool. Anz. 229: 54-62.

Miller, J.S. 1987. Phylogenetic studies in the Papilioninae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. 186:365-512.

Nazari, V., Zakharov, E.V., Sperling, F.A.H., 2007. Phylogeny, historical biogeography, and taxonomic ranking of Parnassiinae (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae) based on morphology and seven genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 42: 131-156.

Ruiz, H.P., and S.R. Sanchez. 1986. Some demographic aspects of Baronia brevicornis Salv. (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Baroniinae) in two localities of Mexico. Anales del Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Serie Zoologia. 1986: 57: 191-198..

Vazquez, G.L. 1987. Baronia brevicornis Salvin and its forms (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae Baroniinae). Anales del Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Serie Zoologia. 58: 655-680.

Vazquez, G.L., and R.H. Perez. 1966. Biology of Baronia brevicornis Salv (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae-Baroniinae). An. Inst. Biol. 37: 195-?.

Yuste, F., H. Perez, and F. Walls. 1972. Compounds of papilionid caterpillars (Baronia brevicornis S.). Experientia 28: 1149-1150.

Information on the Internet

Title Illustrations
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Baronia brevicornis
Scientific Name Baronia brevicornis
Comments Baroniini
Specimen Condition Dead Specimen
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License - Version 3.0.
Copyright © 2000
About This Page

Robert D. Reed
University of California, Irvine, California, USA

Vazrick Nazari
Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada

Felix A. H. Sperling
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Robert D. Reed at and Vazrick Nazari at

Page: Tree of Life Baroniinae. Baronia brevicornis. Authored by Robert D. Reed, Vazrick Nazari, and Felix A. H. Sperling. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Reed, Robert D., Vazrick Nazari, and Felix A. H. Sperling. 2006. Baroniinae. Baronia brevicornis. Version 07 July 2006 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Baronia_brevicornis/12201/2006.07.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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