Under Construction

Biina Herrich-Schaeffer 1864

Bia Hübner 1819

Andrew V. Z. Brower
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Containing group: Brassolini


A small neotropical genus of relatively small-sized owl butterflies.

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

Bia was an enigmatic genus for a long time. Miller (1968) placed it as a basal satyrine in Biinae, a subfamily including Antirrhea and Melanitis that is now viewed as polyphyletic. Brower (2000) showed that Bia belonged to Brassolini based on sequences of the wingless gene, and this has subsequently been supported by additional DNA sequence data (Peña et al. 2005) as well as morphology (Freitas et al. 2002; Vane-Wright and Boppré 2004).

Other Names for Bia Hübner 1819


Brower AVZ. 2000. Phylogenetic relationships among the Nymphalidae (Lepidoptera) inferred from partial sequences of the wingless gene. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 1201-1211.

Casagrande, MM. 2004. Brassolini. In Lamas G ed. 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.

Freitas AVL, Murray D, and Brown KS, Jr. 2002. Immatures, natural history and the systematic position of Bia actorion (Nymphalidae). J. Lepid. Soc. 56: 117-122.

Miller LD. 1968. The higher classification, phylogeny and zoogeography of the Satyridae (Lepidoptera). Mem. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 24: 1-174.

Peña C, Wahlberg N, Weingartner E, Kodandaramaiah U, Nylin S, Freitas AVL, and Brower AVZ. 2006. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40: 29-49.

Vane-Wright RI, and Boppre M. 2004. Adult morphology and the higher classification of Bia Huebner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bonner zoologische Beitrage 53: 235-254.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Bia actorion
Location Rio Cristalino Lodge, Matto Grosso, Brasil
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Identified By Gil Carter
Life Cycle Stage adult
View ventral
Source Actorion Owlet
Source Collection Neotropical Butterflies
Copyright © 2004 Gil Carter
About This Page

Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at

Page: Tree of Life Biina Herrich-Schaeffer 1864. Bia Hübner 1819. Authored by Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2010. Biina Herrich-Schaeffer 1864. Bia Hübner 1819. Version 13 February 2010 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Bia/70748/2010.02.13 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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