DiriniNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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CharacteristicsThe tribe was characterized by Miller (1968) as exhibiting a forewing cell shorter than half the length of the forewing, although his circumscription did not include Aeropetes or Paralethe, both formerly placed in Lethini (Miller, 1968) or Elymniini (Ackery et al. 1995), but now considered to belong to the tribe (Peņa et al. 2006; Price et al. 2011). Price et al. indicate that the presence of a scaphium on the male genitalia is the sole known morphological synapomorphy uniting the group (the short forewing cell unites Dira, Dingana Serradinga, Torynesis and Tarsocera.
Discussion of Phylogenetic RelationshipsHypothesis of relationships based on the analysis of morphology and molecules by Price et al. (2011).
Ackery PR, Smith CR, and Vane-Wright RI eds. 1995. Carcasson's African butterflies. Canberra: CSIRO.
Miller, L.D. (1968) The higher classification, phylogeny and zoogeography of the Satyridae (Lepidoptera). Mem. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 24, 1-174.
Peņa, C., Wahlberg, N., Weingartner, E., Kodandaramaiah, U., Nylin, S., Freitas, A.V.L. & Brower, A.V.Z. (2006) Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40, 29-49.
Price, B.W., Villet, M.H., Walton, S.M. & Barker, N.P. (2011) Using molecules and morphology to infer the phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Dirini (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae), a tribe of butterflies endemic to southern Africa. Systematic Entomology 36, 300-316.
About This Page
University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2011 Niklas Wahlberg and
Page: Tree of Life Dirini Authored by . Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 25 September 2006
- Content changed 09 December 2011
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2011. Dirini http://tolweb.org/Dirini/70267/2011.12.09 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 09 December 2011 (under construction).