Ice bugs, Ice crawlers, Rock crawlers
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
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relationships after Jarvis & Whiting 2006
In cold areas, often in mountains, under rocks and in litter in forests, and in caves. In summer the North American species feed at night on insects frozen on the surface of snow fields; they are somewhat omnivorous. Western North America, Japan, Korea, China, Siberia.
Unknown as fossils, although some researchers (e.g., Vrsansky et al. 2001) consider grylloblattids to be related to the Protorthoptera complex dating back to the Carboniferous.
- wings absent
- long, multisegmented cerci
- projecting ovipositor
- male genitalia asymmetrical
Other Names for Grylloblattidae
- Ice bugs
- Ice crawlers
- Rock crawlers
Ando, H., ed. 1982. Biology of the Notoptera. Kashiyo-Insatsu Co., Ltd., Nagano, Japan. 194 pp.
Béthoux, O., A. Nel, J. Lapeyrie and G. Gand. 2005. New data on paleozoic Grylloblattid insects (Neoptera). J. Paleontol. 79:125–138.
Gurney, A. B. 1948. The taxonomy and distribution of the Grylloblattidae. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 50:86-102.
Gurney, A. B. 1961. Further advances in the taxonomy and distribution of Grylloblattidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 74:67-76.
Jarvis, K. J. and M. F. Whiting. 2006. Phylogeny and biogeography of ice crawlers (Insecta: Grylloblattodea) based on six molecular loci: Designating conservation status for Grylloblattodea species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(1):222-237.
Kamp, J. W. 1973. Numerical classification of the orthopteroids, with special reference to the Grylloblattodea. Canadian Entomologist 105:1235-1249.
Storozhenko, S. Y. 1988. A review of the family Grylloplattidae [sic] (Insecta). Articulata 3(5):167-181.
Storozhenko, S. Y. and J. K. Park. 2002. A new genus of the ice crawlers (Grylloblattida: Grylloblattidae) from Korea. Far Eastern Entomologist 114 :18-20.
Vrsansky, P., S. Y. Storozhenko, C. C. Labandeira, and P. Ihringova. 2001. Galloisiana olgae sp. nov. (Grylloblattodea: Grylloblattidae) and the paleobiology of a relict order of insects. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 94(2):179-184.
Walker, E. M. 1914. A new species of Orthoptera forming a new genus and family. Canadian Entomologist 46:93-99.
Walker, E. M. 1937. Grylloblatta, a living fossil. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada 31:1-10.
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- Content changed 07 September 2006
Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 2006. Grylloblattodea. Grylloblattidae. Ice bugs, Ice crawlers, Rock crawlers. Version 07 September 2006 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Grylloblattidae/8256/2006.09.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/