SkippersAndrew V. Z. Brower and Andrew Warren
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
The hypothesis of relationships is based on the combined morphological/molecular cladistic analysis of Warren et al. (2008). Eudaminae is removed from Pyrginae in order to preserve monophyly of the latter. Pyrrhopygini (formerly viewed as a subfamily) is nested within Pyrginae.
Ackery, P. R., R. de Jong, and R. I. Vane-Wright. 1999. The butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea, and Papilionoidea. Pages 264-300 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.
Warren, A. D., Ogawa, J. R. & Brower, A. V. Z. 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of subfamilies and circumscription of tribes in the family Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera: Hesperiodea). Cladistcs 24, 642-676.
Information on the Internet
- LepIndex. The Global Lepidoptera Names Index. Natural History Museum, London.
- Butterflies & Moths of the World: Generic Names & their Type-species. Brian Pitkin and Paul Jenkins. Natural History Museum, London.
- HOSTS - a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants
- Butterflies at the Field Museum. The Field Museum, Chicago.
- Butterflies and Moths of North America. Occurrence maps, species accounts, checklists, and photographs.
- FieldGuides: Butterflies. enature.com
- BugGuide.Net: Family Hesperiidae - Skippers. Identification, Images, & Information For Insects, Spiders & Their Kin For the United States & Canada.
- Skipper Butterflies of North America.
- Butterflies and their Larval Foodplants
- Butterflies of Canada
- Michigan Lepidoptera Survey
- Butterflies of Southeastern Arizona. Bruce Walsh, University of Arizona.
- North American Butterfly Association (NABA). A membership-based not-for-profit organization working to increase public enjoyment and conservation of butterflies.
- Association for Tropical Lepidoptera
- Neotropical Butterflies. A Photo Gallery featuring butterflies from Mexico through Central America to Amazonia and Argentina.
- Butterflies of Ecuador. Systematics - Biogeography - Natural history. Keith R. Willmott, Jason P.W. Hall.
- Mariposas Mexicanas: Interactive Listing of Mexican Butterflies. Warren, A. D., J. E. Llorente-Bousquets, A. Luis-Martínez & I. Vargas-Fernández.
- Afrotropical Butterflies. Mark C. Williams.
- Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa
- European Butterflies.
- European Butterflies.
- Lepidoptera and some other life forms
- Butterfly Conservation. Protecting wild butterflies and their habitats in the UK.
- Butterflies of Ireland
- Butterflies and Moths of the Netherlands.
- Colour Atlas of the Siberian Lepidoptera
- Butterfly Larvae of Australia.
- South Australian Butterflies.
- A Check List of Butterflies in Indo-China. Chiefly from Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam.
- Butterflies and Dragonflies of Sri Lanka
- Singapore Butterfly Checklist
About This Page
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at and Andrew Warren at
Page copyright © 2010 and
Page: Tree of Life Hesperiidae Authored by . Skippers.Andrew V. Z. Brower and Andrew Warren. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- Content changed 07 April 2008
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. and Andrew Warren. 2008. Hesperiidae http://tolweb.org/Hesperiidae/12028/2008.04.07 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Skippers. Version 07 April 2008 (under construction).