This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
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Davis D. R. 1999. The Monotrysian Heteroneura. Pages 65–90 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.
Friedlander, T. P., J. C. Regier, C. Mitter, D. L. Wagner, and Q. Q. Fang. 2000. Evolution of heteroneuran Lepidoptera (Insecta) and the utility of dopa decarboxylase for Cretaceous-aged phylogenetics. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 130:213-234.
Krenn, H. W. and N. P. Kristensen. 2000. Early evolution of the proboscis of Lepidoptera (Insecta): external morphology of the galea in basal glossatan moth lineages, with remarks on the origin of the pilifers. Zoologischer Anzeiger 239:179-196.
Kristensen, N. P. 1999. The Homoneurous Glossata. Pages 51-63 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.
Kristensen, N. P. and A. W. Skalski. 1999. Phylogeny and paleontology. Pages 7-25 in: Lepidoptera: Moths and Butterflies. 1. Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography. Handbook of Zoology Vol. IV, Part 35. N. P. Kristensen, ed. De Gruyter, Berlin and New York.
Nielsen E. S. and D. R. Davis. 1985. The first southern hemisphere prodoxid and the phylogeny of the Incurvarioidea (Lepidoptera). Systematic Entomology suppl. 1:1–16.
Nielsen, E. S., G. S. Robinson, D. L. Wagner. 2000. Ghost-moths of the world: a global inventory and bibliography of the Exoporia (Mnesarchaeoidea and Hepialoidea) (Lepidoptera). Journal of Natural History 34 (6):823-878.
Scoble, M. J. 1992. The Lepidoptera: Form, Function and Diversity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Simonsen, T. J. 2001. The wing vestiture of the non-ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta). Comparative morphology and phylogenetic implications. Acta Zoologica 82(4):275-298.
Wiegmann, B. M., J. C. Regier, and C. Mitter. 2002. Combined molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the earliest lepidopteran lineages. Zoologica Scripta 31:67-81.
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Tree of Life Web Project. 2003. Neolepidoptera. Version 01 January 2003 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Neolepidoptera/11719/2003.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/