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Nototodarus Pfeffer 1912

Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione
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taxon links [up-->]Nototodarus hawaiiensis [up-->]Nototodarus sloanii [down<--]Todarodinae Interpreting the tree
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Containing group: Todarodinae


Members of Nototodarus are demersal squid found sitting on or swimming near the ocean floor on continental or island shelves and slopes. The three recognized species are found only in the Indo-Pacific region.

Brief diagnosis: 

A member of the Todarodinae with ...



  1. Arms
    1. Arm protective membranes and trabeculae normal. 
    2. Both arms IV hectocotylized (see below). Right arm fully hectocotylized; left arm hectocotylized only at base.

  2. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular stalks without free trabeculae.
    2. Largest club suckers with small, pointed teeth alternating with rectangular or broadly rounded teeth.
  3. Head
    1. Foveola without side pockets (Dunning and Förch, 1998).


The hectocotylization of both arms IV is shared with Todaropsis but the latter lacks a foveola in the funnel groove. 

Comparison of species

The three species of Nototodarus differ by the number of suckers on arms I (over 120 suckers in N. sloanii, 56-100 in N. gouldi, less than 60 in N. hawaiiensis) and  the morphology of the distal third of the hectocotylized right arm IV.

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Figure. Side (= dorsal) views of the hectocotylized right arm IV of Nototodarus species. Drawing modified from Dunning and Förch (1998).


N. gouldi is known from continental shelf waters of Australia south of 27°S and off the northern and central coasts of New Zealand; N. sloanii is known from southern waters off New Zealand; N. Hawaiiensis has an insular distribution around various islands and seamounts in the tropical to subtropical waters of the Indo-Pacific region (Dunning and Förch, 1998).


Dunning, M. C. and E. C. Förch. 1998. A review of the systematics, istribution, and biology of arrow squids of the genus Nototodarus Pfefer, 1912 (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, No. 586: 393-404.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Nototodarus hawaiiensis
Location Hawaiian waters
Creator Ray Hixon
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Behavior Resting on bottom of aquarium
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About This Page

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Page: Tree of Life Nototodarus Pfeffer 1912. Authored by Richard E. Young and Michael Vecchione. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Young, Richard E. and Michael Vecchione. 2016. Nototodarus Pfeffer 1912. Version 29 August 2016 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Nototodarus/19938/2016.08.29 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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