PhyciodesAndrew V. Z. Brower
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A mainly nearctic genus, with many cryptic and potentially hybridizing species. Specimens identified as Phyciodes batesii, P. pulchella, P. cocyta and P. tharos are not distinguishable from one another on the basis of the DNA sequences employed by Wahlberg et al. 2003 or Wahlberg and Freitas 2007.
Higgins LG. 1981. A revision of Phyciodes Hubner and related genera, with a review of the classification of the Melitaeinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 43: 77-243.
Lamas G ed. 2004. Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.
Wahlberg, N. & Freitas, A. V. 2007 Colonization of and radiation in South America by butterflies in the subtribe Phyciodina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 44, 1257-1272.
Wahlberg N, Oliveira R, and Scott JA. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Phyciodes butterfly species (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): complex mtDNA variation and species delimitations. Syst. Ent. 28: 1-17.
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Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
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Page: Tree of Life Phyciodes Authored by . Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 11 March 2007
- Content changed 21 January 2008
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. 2008. Phyciodes http://tolweb.org/Phyciodes/70589/2008.01.21 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 21 January 2008 (under construction).