Under Construction


John Harshman
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taxon links [up-->]Oxyruncus cristatus [up-->]Laniocera [up-->]Laniisoma [up-->]Pachyramphus [up-->]Tityra [up-->]Platypsaris [up-->]Onychorhynchus [up-->]Iodopleura [up-->]Terenotriccus erythrurus [up-->]Myiobius [up-->]Schiffornis [down<--]Tyranni Interpreting the tree
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This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.

The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.

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You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.

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Relationships after Tello et al. (2009), Ohlson et al. (2008), and Chesser (2004).
Containing group: Tyranni

Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships

Sibley and Ahlquist (1985) established the new subfamily Tityrinae to include several taxa removed from traditional families, and it has been subsequently expanded to a family (Ericson et al. 2006, Ohlson et al. 2008, Tello et al. 2009), now including taxa from Tyrannidae (Tityra, Xenopsaris, Pachyramphus, Laniocera — though these were sometimes placed in Cotingidae too —Myiobius, Terenotriccus, Onychorhynchus), Cotingidae (Iodopleura, Laniisoma), and Pipridae (Schiffornis). Oxyruncus (sharpbill) has sometimes been placed in Tyrannidae or Cotingidae, and sometimes given its own family, Oxyruncidae.

Other Names for Tityridae


Barber, B. R. and N. H. Rice. 2007. Systematics and evolution in the Tityrinae (Passeriformes : Tyrannoidea). Auk 124(4):1317-1329.

Chesser, R. T. 2004. Molecular systematics of New World suboscine birds. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 32:11-24.

Ericson, P. G. P., D. Zuccon, J. I. Ohlson, U. S. Johansson, H. Alvarenga, and R. O. Prum. 2006. Higher-level phylogeny and morphological evolution of tyrant flycatchers, cotingas, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40:4711-483.

Johansson, U. S., M. Irestedt, T. J. Parsons, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2002. Basal phylogeny of the Tyrannoidea based on comparisons of cytochrome b and exons of nuclear c-myc and RAG-1 genes. Auk 119:984-995.

Ohlson, J., J. Fjeldså, and P. G. P. Ericson. 2008. Tyrant flycatchers coming out in the open: Phylogeny and ecological radiation of Tyrannidae (Aves, Passeriformes). Zoologica Scripta 37:315-335.

Prum, R.O. 1990. A test of the monophyly of the manakins (Pipridae) and of the cotingas (Cotingidae) based on morphology. Occ. Papers Museum of Zoology, Univ. of Michigan 723:1-44.

Prum, R.O. and W. E. Lanyon. 1989. Monophyly and phylogeny of the Schiffornis group (Tyrannoidea). Condor 91:444–461.

Prum, R. O., Rice, N. H., Mobley, J. A., and Dimmick, W. W. 2000. A preliminary phylogenetic hypothesis for the cotingas (Cotingidae) based on mitochondrial DNA. Auk 117: 236-241.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1985. Phylogeny and classification of New World suboscine passerines (Passeriformes: Oligomyodi: Tyrannides). Ornithol. Monogr. 36:396-430.

Tello, J. G., R. G. Moyle, D. J. Marchese, and J. Cracraft. 2009. Phylogeny and phylogenetic classification of the tyrant flycatchers, cotinga, manakins, and their allies (Aves: Tyrannides). Cladistics 25:1-39.

Title Illustrations
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Scientific Name Iodopleura pipra
Location Angelim Reserve, São Paulo state, Brazil
Comments This one is endemic to the lowland rainforests of Brazil, a habitat that has been reduced to a tiny fraction of it's original extent. Fortunately they are still easy to see in a few places.
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Copyright © Nick Athanas
Scientific Name Schiffornis virescens
Location Mata úmida de Boa Nova, Bahia, Brazil
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source Schiffornis virescens_Greenish Schiffornis
Source Collection Flickr
Copyright © 2008 Ciro Albano
Scientific Name Tityra semifasciata
Location along the forest trail north of Sangayta, Nayarit, Mexico
Specimen Condition Live Specimen
Source WMex09_D-40-0568a
Source Collection Flickr
Image Use creative commons This media file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License - Version 2.0.
Copyright © 2009 Jerry Oldenettel
About This Page

Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to John Harshman at

Page: Tree of Life Tityridae. Authored by John Harshman. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

Citing this page:

Harshman, John. 2009. Tityridae. Version 28 November 2009 (under construction). http://tolweb.org/Tityridae/67996/2009.11.28 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/

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Each ToL branch page provides a synopsis of the characteristics of a group of organisms representing a branch of the Tree of Life. The major distinction between a branch and a leaf of the Tree of Life is that each branch can be further subdivided into descendent branches, that is, subgroups representing distinct genetic lineages.

For a more detailed explanation of the different ToL page types, have a look at the Structure of the Tree of Life page.

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