Cephalopod Mantle Armature

Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)

Cephalopoda Glossary

The skin of the mantle sometimes contains large scale-like structures called cushions, tubercules or warts depending on their shape and structure. The function of these structures is uncertain but a protective role seems likely. A hydrodynamic role is also possible in some species such as Pholidoteuthis boschmai (see Roper and Lu, 1990). In addition many other species possess very small tubercules in the skin that are only visible under the microscope. However, sometimes even the large structures are easily overly looked due to their transparency (Fig. A) and their tightly packed arrangement (Fig. B).

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Figure. A - Photograph of tubercules on the mantle of Cranchia scabra, taken by R. Young. B - Scanning electron micrograph of tubercules on the mantle of Pholidoteuthis boschmai, from Roper and Lu, 1990. C - Drawing of the warts on the mantle of Onykia ingens, modified from Pfeffer, 1912. D - Photograph of the dermal cushions of Lepidoteuthis grimaldii, modified from Joubin, 1900. Scanning electron micrograph of the dermal cushions of Pholidoteuthis adami, from Roper and Lu, 1990.



Joubin, L. 1900. Cephalopodes provenant des Campagnes de la Princesse-Alice (1991-1897). Result. Camp. Scient. Monaco, 17: 1-35.

Pfeffer, G. 1912. Die Cephalopoden der Plankton-Expedition. Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition der Humboldt-Stiftung. 2: 1-815.

Roper, C.F.E. and C.C. Lu 1990. Comparative morphology and function of dermal structures in oceanic squids (Cephalopoda). Smithson. Contr. Zool., No. 493: 1-40.

About This Page

University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA

National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C. , USA

Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003)
Laboratoire Arago, Banyuls-Sur-Mer, France

Page: Tree of Life Cephalopod Mantle Armature Authored by Richard E. Young, Michael Vecchione, and Katharina M. Mangold (1922-2003). The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.

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