CarmindaAndrew V. Z. Brower and Carlos Peña
- Carminda umuarama
- Carminda paeon
- Carminda griseldis
Dias (2011) lists the following diagnostic features distinguishing species of Carminda from those of Moneuptychia:
Hindwing outer margins distinctly wavy.
Ventral hindwing median lines extended and distinctly angular.
Ventral fore- and hindwing color patterns contrasting.
Male genitalia: uncus laterally extended, latero-posterior apophyses of tegumen long, curvy and tapered at ends, angular appendices of tegumen not developed
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
Carminda was considered a synonym of Moneuptychia by Lamas (2004), but, as pointed out by Freitas (2007), the phylogenetic analysis of Peña et al. (2006) shows Lamas' circumscription to be polyphyletic. This means at least that these species are not part of Moneuptychia, although whether Carminda is a distinct group from Pareuptychia remains to be seen.
Dias, MM. 1998. Designação da espécie tipo do gênero Carminda Ebert & Dias (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 15:1119.
Dias, MM. 2011. Taxonomic considerations on the genera Moneuptychia Forster and Carminda Dias, reval. (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae). Braz. J. Biol. 71, 537-540.
Ebert, H.,Dias, MM. 1997. Novos gênero e espécie de Satyrinae (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) do sudeste Brasileiro. Revta. bras. Zool. 14, 283-298.
Freitas, AVL. 2007 A new species of Moneuptychia Forster (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae, Euptychiina) from the highlands of southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Entomology 36, 919-925.
Lamas, G. (ed.) 2004 Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A Hesperioidea - Papiionoidea. Gainesville: Scientific Publishers/Association of Tropical Lepidoptera.
Peña, C., Wahlberg, N., Weingartner, E., Kodandaramaiah, U., Nylin, S., Freitas, AVL. & Brower, AVZ. 2006 Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 40, 29-49.
About This Page
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
University of Turku
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Andrew V. Z. Brower at and Carlos Peña at
Page copyright © 2012 and Carlos Peña
Page: Tree of Life Carminda Authored by . Andrew V. Z. Brower and Carlos Peña. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 06 January 2008
- Content changed 04 July 2012
Citing this page:
Brower, Andrew V. Z. and Carlos Peña. 2012. Carminda http://tolweb.org/Carminda/113127/2012.07.04 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 04 July 2012 (under construction).