AnglewingsNiklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
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The genus Polygonia is holarctic. The adult wings have strongly crenulated margins with brownish patterns on the underside that render the butterflies virtually invisible when they land on dead leaves. Several species, such as P. interrogationis, overwinter as adults and may be seen flying in the early spring before any leaves are present on the trees.
Discussion of Phylogenetic RelationshipsThe topology is based on the combined analysis of nuclear and mitochondrial genes by Wahlberg et al. (2009, their Fig. 1). There is some conflict between topologies implied by the mtDNA in contrast to the nuclear genes, but this tree represents the most parsimonious arrangement of the taxa based on all the data available, and therefore the preferred hypothesis of relationships for the time being.
Wahlberg N, Brower AVZ, and Nylin S. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of tribes and genera in the subfamily Nymphalinae ((Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on three gene sequences. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 86: 227-251.
Wahlberg N, and Nylin S. 2003. Morphology versus molecules: resolution of the positions of Nymphalis, Polygonia, and related genera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Cladistics 19: 213-223.
Wahlberg, N., Weingartner, E., Warren, A. D. & Nylin, S. 2009 Timing major conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes in species relationships of Polygonia butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphlalini). BMC Evolutionary Biology 9, 92.
About This Page
University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Niklas Wahlberg at and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2009 Niklas Wahlberg and
Page: Tree of Life Polygonia Authored by . Anglewings.Niklas Wahlberg and Andrew V. Z. Brower. The TEXT of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License - Version 3.0. Note that images and other media featured on this page are each governed by their own license, and they may or may not be available for reuse. Click on an image or a media link to access the media data window, which provides the relevant licensing information. For the general terms and conditions of ToL material reuse and redistribution, please see the Tree of Life Copyright Policies.
- First online 11 March 2007
- Content changed 04 June 2009
Citing this page:
Wahlberg, Niklas and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2009. Polygonia http://tolweb.org/Polygonia/70340/2009.06.04 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Anglewings. Version 04 June 2009 (under construction).