BrenthisThomas Simonsen, Niklas Wahlberg, and Andrew V. Z. Brower
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There are currently four species recognized in the genus Brenthis. These small to medium sized fritillaries are distributed throughout the Palaearctic (Tollman & Lewington 1999, Tuzov 2003). All Brenthis species lack silver spots on the undersides of the wings. Contrary to most Argynnini, Brenthis larvae do not feed on violets, but instead on members of the rose-family and on legumes (Tuzov 2003).
Putative autapomorphies for Brenthis include (Simonsen 2006):
- Uncus trifid
- Ampulla of the male valve long and dorso-ventrally flattened with dorsal microtrichia
- Fenestrula on the male tegumen arrowhead shaped
- Female abdominal venter 8 with a latero-anterior rectangular process
Putative synapomorphies for B. hecate, B. mofidii (Simonsen 2006):
- Male latero-ventral tergal sclerite broad, triangular and pointed downward
- Female anterior apophysis membranous, but with a sclerotized tip
- Dorso-posterior corner of female S7 bent sharply inwards
The sister group relationship between B. ino and B. daphne is supported by molecular and combined charactersets only and no morphological synapomorphies have yet been identified.
Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships
All four species of Brenthis, have been sampled for morphology based phylogenetic studies (Simonsen 2006). The study by Simonsen et al. (2006) did not sample B. mofidii, but recent molecular data (N. Wahlberg, unpublished) corroborate the position of B. mofidii as the sister species to B. hecate. The monophyly of the genus appears to be stable and well-supported by both molecular and morphological data.
Simonsen, T. J. 2006. Fritillary phylogeny, classification and larval hostplants: reconstructed mainly on the basis of male and female genitalic morphology (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Argynnini). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 627-673.
Simonsen, T. J., N. Wahlberg, A. V. Z. Brower, and R. de Jong. 2006. Morphology, molecules and Fritillaries: approaching a stable phylogeny for Argynnini (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 37: 405-418.
Tollman, T. & Lewington, R. 1999. Butterflies of Britain and Europe. Collins Field Guide. Harper Collins Publishers.
Tuzov, V. K. 2003. Guide to the butterflies of the Palaearctic Region. Nymphalidae part I. Tribe Argynnini: Argynnis, Issoria, Brenthis, Argyreus. 64 pp. Omnes Artes, Milano, Italy.
About This Page
University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
University of Turku, Finland
Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, Tennessee, USA
Correspondence regarding this page should be directed to Thomas Simonsen at , Niklas Wahlberg at , and Andrew V. Z. Brower at
Page copyright © 2011 Thomas Simonsen, Niklas Wahlberg, and
All Rights Reserved.
- First online 04 October 2006
- Content changed 25 March 2007
Citing this page:
Simonsen, Thomas, Niklas Wahlberg, and Andrew V. Z. Brower. 2007. Brenthis http://tolweb.org/Brenthis/70411/2007.03.25 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/. Version 25 March 2007 (under construction).
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- Brenthis Version 04 October 2006 (under construction) see full version history