Lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
This tree diagram shows the relationships between several groups of organisms.
The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree. This ancestor diversified over time into several descendent subgroups, which are represented as internal nodes and terminal taxa to the right.
You can click on the root to travel down the Tree of Life all the way to the root of all Life, and you can click on the names of descendent subgroups to travel up the Tree of Life all the way to individual species.
For more information on ToL tree formatting, please see Interpreting the Tree or Classification. To learn more about phylogenetic trees, please visit our Phylogenetic Biology pages.close box
Adkins, R. M. and R. L. Honeycutt. 1994. Evolution of the primate cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene. Journal of Molecular Evolution 38:215-231.
Arnason, U., A. Gullberg, and A. Janke. 1998. Molecular timing of primate divergences as estimated by two nonprimate calibration points. Journal of Molecular Evolution 47:718-727.
Bailey, W. J., D. H. A. Fitch, D. A. Tagle, J. Czelusniak, J. L. Slightom, and M. Goodman. 1991. Molecular evolution of the PSI-eta-globin gene locus: Gibbon phylogeny and the hominoid slowdown. Molecular Biology and Evolution 8:155-184.
Barton, R. A. 2004. Binocularity and brain evolution in primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 101(27):10113-10115.
Bloch, J. I. and D. M. Boyer. 2002. Grasping primate origins. Science298:1606-1610.
Bloch, J. I., D. C. Fisher, P. D. Gingerich, G. F. Gunnell, E. L. Simons, and M. D. Uhen. 1997. Cladistic analysis and anthropoid origins. Science 278:2134-2135.
Fleagle, J. G. 1999. Primate Adaptation and Evolution. Academic Press, San Diego.
Flynn, J. J., A. R. Wyss, R. Charrier, and C. C. Swisher. 1995. An Early Miocene anthropoid skull from the Chilean Andes. Nature 373:603-607.
Gebo, D. L., M. Dagosto, K. C. Beard, and T. Qi. 2000. The smallest primates. Journal of Human Evolution 38:585-594.
Gebo, D. L., M. Dagosto, K. C. Beard, T. Qi, and J. W. Wang. 2000. The oldest known anthropoid postcranial fossils and the early evolution of higher primates. Nature 404:276-278.
Glazko, G. V. and M. Nei. 2003. Estimation of divergence times for major lineages of primate species. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(3):424-434.
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Goodman, M., C. A. Porter, J. Czelusniak, S. L. Page, H. Schneider, J. Shoshani, G. Gunnell, and C. P. Groves. 1998. Toward a phylogenetic classification of primates based on DNA evidence complemented by fossil evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9:585-598.
Hartwig, W. C., ed. 2002. The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge Studies in Biological and Evolutionary Anthropology 33. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York.
Jaworski, C. J. 1995. A reassessment of mammalian alpha-A-crystallin sequences using DNA sequencing: Implications for anthropoid affinities of tarsier. Journal of Molecular Evolution 41:901-908.
Johnson, W.E. and J. M. Coffin. 1999. Constructing primate phylogenies from ancient retrovirus sequences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 96:10254-10260.
Kappeler, P. M. 1998. Nests, tree holes, and the evolution of primate life histories. American Journal of Primatology 46:7-33.
Kay, R. F., C. Ross, and B. A. Williams. Anthropoid origins. Science 275:797-804.
Kay, R. F., C. Ross, B. A. Williams, and D. Johnson. 1997. Cladistic analysis and anthropoid origins - Response. Science 278:2135-2136.
Koop, B. F., D. A. Tagle, M. Goodman, and J. L. Slightom. 1989. A molecular view of primate phylogeny and important systematic and evolutionary questions. Molecular Biology and Evolution 6:580-613.
Lockwood, C. A. and J. G. Fleagle. 1999. The recognition and evaluation of homoplasy in primate and human evolution. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 42:189-232.
Martin, R. D. 1993. Primate origins: plugging the gaps. Nature 262:223-234.
Miyamoto, M. M. and M. Goodman. 1990. DNA systematics and evolution of primates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:197-220.
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Information on the Internet
- The Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center (WRPRC). Provides acces to a variety of resources including:
- BIOSIS BiologyBrowser: Primates
- California Regional Primate Research Center. University of California, Davis.
- American Society of Primatologists
- Primate Cytogenetics Network
- The Virtual Skeletons Project. University of Texas at Austin.
- Order Primates. The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web.
- Introduction to Primates. Mesa Community College Exploratorium of Our Kind.
- Primate Display. University of Edinburgh's Natural History Museum.
- Information on recent finds of fossil primates in China:
- Searching for Our Primate Ancestors in China. An article by Carnegie paleontologist Chris Beard.
- Newly discovered fossils from China shed light on the common ancestry of monkeys, apes and humans . Northern Illinois University News Release.
- Researchers discover fossils of tiny, thumb-length primates. Northern Illinois University News Release.
- Primates Online. Primate Conservation & Welfare Society.
- Electronic Zoo Primates Page. Links to primate information on the web.
- Tim Knight's Primate Gallery. Primate photos, illustrations, and paintings by various artists.
- Steve Bloom's Primates Project. A collection of great primate photos.
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Citing this page:
Tree of Life Web Project. 1999. Primates. Lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans. Version 01 January 1999 (temporary). http://tolweb.org/Primates/15963/1999.01.01 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/